I can make as much dough as I want with the preparation bowl without the components ever deplenishing.
EDIT: Also applies to the stove
This has been going on for a while, but i can't reproduce it at will
After some testing, I think it's pretty safe to say it only hapens when you have over the required components for the recipe.
So for example, if you need 2x Sudafed for meth and you have 4, then it won't consume any. But if you need 2 and only have 2, it will consume both.
In my experience this is the same in any kind of crafting, not just cooking food.
For the druglab specifically, sometimes a message will pop up saying "This drug lab is already making something." when using too many ingredients to start a process.
yeah i dunno, i've never had it happen